The Gastroenterology Teaching Project

Pathology and Pathophysiology
of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

GTP 03

Table of Contents

  1. Esophagus: Normal Lower Esophageal and Squamo-columnar Junction Mucosae
  2. Esophagus: Normal Squamous Epithelium
  3. Esophagus: Normal Squamo-columnar Junction
  4. Esophagitis (Inflammation and Reactive Epithelial Changes of the Esophageal Mucosa) Has Many Causes
  5. Reflux Esophagitis is the Culmination of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux-Induced Changes in Cell Epithelial Turnover
  6. Esophagus: G-E Reflux - Changes in Epithelium and Vascular Papillae
  7. Esophagus: G-E Reflux - Defenses Against Reflux-induced Injury
  8. Esophagus: G-E Reflux - Symptoms and Endoscopic Findings in Reflux are Not Predictive of Biopsy Findings
  9. Esophagus: G-E Reflux - Heightened Epithelial Turnover in G-E Reflux is Shown by Increased Epithelial Tritiated Thymidine Labeling
  10. Esophagus: G-E Reflux - Reflux-induced Epithelial Change is a Consequence of Increased Cell Turnover
  11. Acute (Neutrophilic) Inflammation and Erosion in Severe Reflux Esophagitis
  12. Severe Epithelial Reactive Changes with Eosinophils (EOS) in Gastroesophageal Reflux
  13. Sequelae of Prolonged G-E Reflux
  14. Barrett's Esophagus: Development and Anatomic Relationships
  15. Endoscopic Landmarks in the GEJ Region: Normal vs. Barrett's (Columnar-lined) Esophagus With Location of Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)
  16. Requirements for Diagnosis of Barrett's Esophagus
  17. Barrett's Esophagus: Gross Appearance
  18. Barrett's Esophagus Should Be Suspected and Confirmed by Biopsy When the Squamo-columnar Junction is Displaced Or Highly Irregular
  19. Barrett's Mucosa (BM) With Submucosal Esophageal Gland (SMEG) Below Muscularis Mucosae (MM)
  20. Barrett's Mucosa: Distinctive (Specialized) Type
  21. Columnar Epithelial Dysplasia in Barrett's Mucosa - Definition and Grading
  22. Dysplasia in Biopsies from Barrett's Esophagus as a Predictive Marker for Progession to Adenocarcinoma
  23. Non-Dysplastic and Dysplastic Barrett's Mucosa - Histology
  24. Barrett's Mucosa - Epithelial Changes Indefinite for Dysplasia - Two Examples
  25. Infiltrating Adenocarcinoma (ICA) Arising in Dysplastic Barrett's Mucosa and Invading Smooth Muscle (SM)
  26. Candidal Esophagitis: Endoscopic and Histologic Views
  27. Herpes Simplex Esophagitis: Gross Appearance
  28. Herpetic Esophagitis With Ulcers - Endoscopy and Histology
  29. Pill-induced Esophagitis Occurs Above Sites Where Transit is Normally Delayed
  30. Linear Erosion and Esophagitis Secondary to Mechanical Injury
  31. Esophagus, Stomach, and Duodenum: Normal Anatomic Outlines and Relationships
  32. Normal Antral Mucosa Showing Gastric Lumen (LUM), Foveolae (FOV), and Antral Glands (AG)
  33. Normal Oxyntic Mucosa Showing Foveolae (FOV), Parietal Cells (PC), and Chief Cells (CC)
  34. Major Endocrine Cell Types of the Stomach and Their Products-Immunostain Demonstrations
  35. Gastropathy and Gastritis - Definitions
  36. Poor Correlation Between Endoscopic and Pathologic Diagnosis of Gastritis
  37. Classification of Gastropathy and Gastritis
  38. Understanding of Gastritis & Gastropathy Has Been Hampered by the Multitude of Terms Used
  39. Acute Gastropathy and Gastritis - Classification
  40. Acute Hemorrhagic and Erosive Gastropathy- Principal Features
  41. Hemorrhagic and Erosive Gastropathy - Endoscopy and Histology
  42. Rapid Reconstitution of Ulcer Coverage by Proliferating Epithelium
  43. Aspirin Causes Loss of Surface Mucous Cells in Human Stomach - Scanning Electron Micrographs
  44. The Gastric Mucosa is Protected by a Multi-layered Defense
  45. Pathogenesis of Acute Hemorrhagic and Erosive Gastropathy
  46. Acute H pylori Gastritis (Primary Infection): Major Features
  47. Chronic H pylori Gastritis (Long-Term Infection)-Major Features
  48. Clinical Outcomes and Sequelae of Helicobacter pylori Infection
  49. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Developing vs. Developed Countries
  50. Helicobacter pylori: Curved Organisms (HP) With Flagellae Over Gastric Epithelium
  51. H pylori Organisms Have Specific Affinity for Gastric Mucous Cells But Not Intestinal Absorptive Cells
  52. Helicobacter pylori: Routine Stains for Detecting and Verifying Bacillary and Coccoid Forms
  53. Chronic Active H pylori Gastritis With Neutrophils (PMNs) in Gland
  54. Pathogenesis of H pylori Gastritis
  55. H pylori Gastritis: Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) With Lymphoid Follicle
  56. Chronic Chemical Gastropathy: Principal Features
  57. Chemical Gastropathy vs Gastric Bile Reflux After Gastroenterostomy
  58. Prevalence of Exposure to Gastric Irritants in Patients With Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia Found to Have Chemical Gastropathy Or Normal Histology
  59. Chronic Chemical Gastropathy (NSAID) With Vascular Ectasia (Arrows) and Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia
  60. Severe Chemical Gastropathy in Longterm NSAIDs Use With Ulcers, Regenerating Epithelium, and Neutrophilic Exudate (PMNs)
  61. Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis - Distribution of Autoimmune vs Environmental Types
  62. Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis - Autoimmune vs. Environmental
  63. Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (AMAG) - Autopsy
  64. Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (AMAG) vs. Normal Mucosa
  65. Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis: Autoimmune vs. Environmental Types - Gross Specimens
  66. Oxyntic Mucosa: Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (AMAG) - Intestinal and Pyloric Metaplasia
  67. Carcinoid Tumor in Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis With Infiltrating Tumor
  68. Gastrin Stimulates ECL Cell Secretion and Proliferation
  69. Pathogenetic Pathways to ECL Hyperplasia
  70. Gastric Carcinoid Tumors: Main Features
  71. Environmental Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (EMAG): Early vs. Late Stages
  72. Antral Mucosa: Environmental Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (EMAG)
  73. Chronic Gastritis (Environmental Type) in Japan vs. USA (Caucasians) - Prevalence of Findings in Antrum
  74. Erosion and Ulcer - Definitions
  75. Benign Gastric Ulcer - Lesser Curve, Transitional Zone
  76. Peptic Ulcers Tend to Occur At Upper GI Mucosal Transitional Zones
  77. Upper GI Tract Ulcers Have Many Causes
  78. Oxyntic Mucosa With Parietal Cell (PC) Enlargement After Proton Pump Inhibitor Treatment
  79. Gastro-duodenal Mucosal Integrity is Determined by a Favorable Balance Between Protective and Damaging Factors
  80. Pepsinogens (PG I and PG II): They Have Different Anatomic Origins and Serum Levels
  81. Multiple Factors Involved in Pathogenesis of Gastric Ulcer
  82. B Cell (MALT) Lymphoma in H pylori Gastritis - Pathogenetic Steps
  83. Adenocarcinoma Arising in Environmental Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (EMAG)
  84. H pylori and Gastric Cancer Risk: Two Meta-Analyses
  85. H pylori and Gastric Cancer
  86. Uncommon Forms of Gastritis and Gastropathy
  87. Post-Antrectomy Gastric Atrophy
  88. Allergic Eosinophilic Gastro-Enteritis - Antral Histology
  89. Helicobacter heilmannii: Chronic Active Gastritis
  90. Granulomas in Gastritis - Typical Causes
  91. Gastric and Duodenal Crohn's Disease: Endoscopic and Biopsy Changes vs. Controls
  92. Crohn's Disease of Stomach - Endoscopic and Histologic Changes
  93. Crohn's Disease of Stomach With Granuloma and Separate Non-Specific Inflammation With Granulomatous Features
  94. Crohn's Disease of Stomach With Focal Non-Specific Inflammation Showing Early Granuloma
  95. Non-Crohn's Gastritis With Granulomas - Two Examples (Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis)
  96. Gastritis in Secondary Syphilis
  97. Gastric Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection With Intranuclear Inclusions
  98. Immunodeficiency-Associated Gastric Infections - Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) And Cryptosporidia
  99. Gastric Anisakiasis
  100. Lymphocytic Gastritis - Associated Conditions
  101. Varioliform Gastritis in Patient With Lymphocytic Gastritis
  102. Causes of Large Gastric Folds
  103. Hyperplastic Gastropathies - Gross
  104. Hyperplastic Gastropathies - Histology (Zollinger-Ellison vs Ménétrier's)
  105. Gastric Amyloidosis With Large Rugal Folds - Endoscopy and Histology (Congo Red)
  106. Watermelon Stomach: Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia (GAVE)
  107. Accuracy in the Diagnosis of Gastritis and Gastropathy as Documented by Histopathology
  108. Biopsy Strategy for Diagnosis of Gastritis and Gastropathy
  109. Duodenum - Normal Anatomic Relationships
  110. Normal Duodenum Vs Hyperplastic Brunner's Glands (BG) With Enlarged Intramucosal and Submucosal Glands
  111. Gastric Metaplasia of the Duodenal Bulb Correlates With Acid Exposure But Not With H pylori Infection
  112. Chronic Peptic Duodenitis - Histologic Findings and Definition
  113. Active Chronic Peptic Duodenitis - Defining Histologic Features (Acute Inflammation With H pylori Infection)
  114. H pylori and Duodenal Gastric Metaplasia Correlate With Active Peptic Duodenitis
  115. Duodenal and "Pre-Pyloric" Ulcers - Autopsy Specimen
  116. Duodenal Ulcer With Brunner Gland (BG) Hyperplasia, Pancreatic Penetration
  117. H pylori Alters Control of Gastric Secretion by Decreasing Somatostatin Release
  118. H pylori Infection Causes a Reversible Decrease in Antral D-Cell Density and in Somatostatin Content and An Increase in Gastrin Content in Duodenal Ulcer Patients
  119. The Role of H pylori in the Pathogenesis of Duodenal Ulcer
  120. Principal Non-Peptic Causes of Duodenitis
  121. Duodenal Inflammation and Ulceration in a Patient With Crohn's Disease
  122. Celiac Disease Can Be Misdiagnosed When Only the Duodenal Bulb is Biopsied

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